Monday, August 20, 2012

CBSE X Ch.Transportation in Animals Biology Class VI to X

Transportation in Animals Biology Class 6th to 10th  Revision of  Chapters
Blood is a fluid connective tissue that includes plasma, blood cell and platelets.
Plasma is a fluid substance that transports gases, nutrients, nitrogenous waste.
Hemoglobin is a respiratory pigment which carries oxygen through red blood cells. The amount of hemoglobin varies in different animals.
Blood vessels are tube like and forming a intricate net work to transport blood to various parts of body. They are mainly arteries and veins.
Arteries carry oxygenate blood from heart to different parts of body.
Veins carry deoxygenated blood from body parts to heart.
Capillaries are the fine branches of blood vessels which are deeply innervated into the tissues, organs and organ systems.
Platelet prevents bleeding of blood from blood vessels and body parts by forming a blood clot.
Lymph is a colorless tissue fluid which contains less proteins than plasma and lacks RBC.
Structure of heart consists of two atria and two ventricles in mammals. Fishes are able to extract 80% of the oxygen contained in water passing over their gills.
Heart is a pumping organ for blood in animals. It has structural differences in animals.
Blood circulation - Deoxygenated blood carried to right atrium, and oxygenated blood carried to left atrium.
Right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs and left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to body organs. The force applied by blood in blood vessels is called Blood pressure.
The pressure exerted by blood against the wall of the artery during ventricular contraction or systole is called systolic pressure.
Arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body. The walls of the arteries are thick and elastic. The smallest vessels have walls that are one cell thick, and are called capillaries.
Veins carry deoxygenated blood from parts of the body to the heart. They have thinner and less muscular walls.
Platelets prevent bleeding from blood vessels and body parts by forming blood clots.
Lymph is a colorless fluid that contains less protein than plasma, and lacks RBC.
The heart consists of two atria and two ventricles in mammals. In humans, it is about the size of their fist.
Fish have a two-chambered heart with one ventricle and one atrium. Fish have single circulation.
Amphibians and reptiles have three-chambered hearts with two atria and one ventricle. They have incomplete double circulation.
In humans, deoxygenated blood is carried to the right atrium, and oxygenated blood to the left atrium. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs, while the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the organs of the body. Humans have complete double circulation.
The valves in the ventricles and atria ensure that blood does not flow backwards during contraction or expansion.
The force applied by blood in blood vessels is called blood pressure. This pressure is much greater in the arteries than in the veins
The pressure exerted by blood against the wall of an artery during ventricular contraction or systole is called systolic pressure, and that exerted during ventricular expansion or diastole is called diastolic pressure.
An instrument called the sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure. The normal systolic pressure is about 120 mm of Hg, and diastolic pressure is 80 mm of Hg.

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