Q1: Based on functions performed, list the types of animal tissues.
Answer: Four Category types:
1. Epithelial tissue
2. Connective tissue
3. Nervous tissue
4. Muscle tissue
Q2: Which tissues are called covering or protective tissues?
Q3: Where do we find epithelial tissues on animal body?
Answer: A few examples are:
the lining of the mouth
the lining of blood vessels
Q4: What are the general identifying features of epithelial tissues?
1. Tightly packed cells and form a continuous sheet.
2. Tissue is avascular i.e. without blood vessels.
3. All epithelium is usually separated from the underlying tissue by an extracellular fibrous basement membrane.
Q5:Based on layer and shape of cells, how Epithelial tissues can be classified?
1. Squamous Epithelium
2. Cuboidal Epithelium
3. Columnar Epithelium
4. Ciliated Epithelium
5. Glandular Epithelium
Q6: The surface of Simple squamous epithelium is _____. (choose the correct option)
(b) Selectively Permeable
(d) All of the these
Answer: (b) Selectively Permeable
Q7: What is the shape of simple squamous tissue?
Answer: Flat cells, extremely thin forming a delicate lining.
Q8: Where do you find simple squamous in an animal body?
1. oesophagus lining
2. mouth lining
3. capillaries lining
4. renal capsule
5. alveoli of lung
Q9: What is the main function of simple squamous epithelium?
Answer: Protection and exchange of substances (diffusion) through their selectively permeable surface.
Q10: What is simple stratified epithelium? Where do we find these tissues?
Answer: When squamous cells are arranged in many layers and top layers consist of dead cells covered with keratin ( a protein). These layer of tissues is called stratified epithelium. The skin of human body (or any mammal), lining buccal cavity and pharynx, lining of nasal chamber consist of stratified epithelium.
Q11: What is main purpose of stratified epithelium?
Answer: It protects against frictional wear and water loss. Also protects from invasion of germs (bacteria or fungus).
Q12: What is the shape of cuboidal epithelium? Where do we find these tissues?
Answer: These are somewhat square or cuboid in shape. Cuboidal epithelium is found in kidney tubules, ducts of salivary glands etc.
Q13: What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?
Answer: Protection and mechanical support.
Q14: How will you identify Columnar epithelium? Where are these tissues located?
Answer: Columnar epithelium are elongated and column (pillar like) shaped. They are present in the lining of stomach and intestine.
Q15: What is the main purpose of columnar epithelium?
Answer: Secretion of enzymes and absorption of food. They also facilitate movement across the epithelial barrier.
Q16: What type of epithelium tissues are found in respiratory tract and in intestinal lining? How are these tissues different from each other?
Answer: In respiratory tract and in intestinal lining, columnar epithelium are found. In respiratory tract, there is special type of columnar epithelium are found which are called ciliated columnar epithelium. These ciliated columnar epithelium have hair like outgrowth on their surface, called cilia. Cilia are capable of rhythmic movements in certain direction and their movement pushes the mucus forward to clear it.
Q17: Where do we find glandular columnar epithelia? What are their main role?
Answer: Inner linings of stomach and salivary glands contain special columnar epithelium tissues called glandular tissues.
Glandular tissues contain specialized gland cells (called goblet cells) which are capable of synthesizing and secreting substances like saliva, sweat, enzymes, milk etc.
Q18: What is Haematology?
Answer: Study of blood.
Q19: What is the common characteristic in different connective tissues?
Answer: The cells of connective tissue are loosely spaced and embedded in an intercellular matrix. The matrix may be jelly like, fluid, dense or rigid. The nature of matrix differs in concordance with the function of the particular connective tissue.
Q20: Name different types of connective tissues?
Answer: Blood, Lymph, Bone, Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments, Areolar Tissue and Adipose tissue.
Q22: What are the constituents of connective tissues?
Answer: Connective tissues consist of cells and intercellular matrix.
Q23: List the type of intercellular matrix present in the following connective tissues.
(a) Blood (b) Lymph (c) Bone (d) Cartilage (e) Tendons (f) Ligaments (g) Areolar Tissue (h) Adipose tissue
(a) Blood : Plasma (b) Lymph : Fluid Matrix (c) Bone : Hard matrix composed of Ca and Phosphorous compounds
(d) Cartilage : Flexible matrix (e) Tendons : Fibrous matrix (f) Ligaments : Fibrous matrix (g) Areolar Tissue : Fluid
(h) Adipose tissue : Fluid
Q24: What are constituents of blood tissue?
Answer:Blood tissue consists of:
1. fluid matrix called plasma
2. red blood cells (RBCs, also called erythrocytes)
3. white blood cells (WBCs, also called leukocytes)
4. Platelets (also called thrombocytes)
Q25: What does plasma contain?
Answer: The plasma contains proteins, salts and hormones.
Q26: Name different types of white blood corpuscles.
Neutrophil (polynuclear leucocyte)
Q27: List the functions of blood cells
Answer: Blood flows and transports gases, digested food, hormones and waste materials to different parts of the body. Provide various defense activities.
Q28: Where blood is formed in our body?
Answer: In the bone marrow tissue which are present in the interior of large bones.
Q29: Name the two fluid connective tissues.
Q30: Why type of inter cellular matrix is found in bone tissue? What are its constituents?
Answer: Bone cells are embedded in a hard matrix that is composed of calcium and phosphorus compounds.
Q31(CBSE): Identify the location of the following connective tissues.
(a) Blood (b) Lymph (c) Bone (d) Cartilage (e) Tendons
(a) Blood: Present all over the body in blood vessels.
(b) Lymph: Present in lymph vessels
(c) Bone: Present in all over body forming an endo-skeleton.
(d) Cartilage: trachea, larynx, ear, tip of nose
(e) Tendons: connect muscles to bones.
Q32: Which connective tissue connects two bones?
Q33: Which connective tissue connects bones to muscles?
Q34: Name the constituents of matrix found in cartilage.
Answer: The solid matrix of cartilage is composed of proteins and sugars.
Q35: Where do we find Areolar tissue? What are its functions?
Answer: Areolar connective tissue is found between the skin and muscles, around blood vessels
and nerves and in the bone marrow. It fills the space inside the organs, supports internal organs and helps in repair of tissues.
Q36: Name the fat-storing tissues? Where are they located? How do these tissue help?
Answer: Adipose tissues are fat-storing tissues and are found below the skin and between internal organs. The cells of this tissue are filled with fat globules. Storage of fats also lets it act as an insulator. Q37: What are different types of muscle tissues? Also list which of these are voluntary or involuntary.
Answer: There are three kinds of muscle tissues:
1. Striated Muscles - voluntary muscle
2. Smooth muscle - involuntary muscle
3. Cardiac muscle - involuntary muscle
Q38: Why are striated muscles called skeletal muscles?
Answer: Because they are mostly attached to bones and help in body movement.
Q39: What are identification marks of striated muscles when seen under microscope?
muscles show alternate light and dark bands or striations when stained appropriately. (that's why these are called striated muscles).
tissue are long, cylindrical, unbranched and multinucleated (having many nuclei).
Q40: Identify which type of muscles tissues are associated with the following body actions
(b) iris movement to control size of pupil
(c) peristaltic movements of the oesophagus
(d) heart beat
(e) movement of blood in blood vessels
(a) locomotion: striated muscles
(b) iris movement to control size of pupil: smooth muscles
(c) peristaltic movements of the oesophagus: smooth muscles
(d) heart beat: cardiac muscles
(e) movement of blood in blood vessels: smooth muscles
Q41: How will you identify cardiac muscles cells under a microscope?
Answer: Cardiac muscle cells are short, branched and striated. These are usually uni-nucleated. Cells are interconnected by intercalated discs.
Q42: Which muscle tissues show characteristics of both striated and unstriated muscles?
Answer: Cardiac tissues.
Q43: Where do we find cardiac tissues? What are the functions of cardiac tissues?
Answer: Cardiac tissues are found in heart only. Cardiac muscle tissues contract and relax rhythmically throughout life without fatigue. They pump and distribute the blood to the various parts of the body.
Q44: Do all cells respond to stimuli or this ability is possessed by nerve cells only?
Answer: All cells respond to stimuli. But nerve cells are specialised in transmitting the stimulus very rapidly from one place to another within the body.
Q45: What is the unit of nervous tissues?
Answer: Neuron or nerve cell.
Q46: Where do we find nerve cells?
Answer: Nerve cells are present in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves are branched throughout the body.
Q47: How long a nerve cell can be?
Answer: It can be a meter long.
Q48: How are muscles tissues related to nerve cells?
Answer: Muscles do not move on their own. They move only when they receive a nerve impulse. Motor neurons ( a type of nerve cell) are connected to muscles which carry stimulus for muscle movement.
Q49: Name the three distinct parts of a neuron.
Q50: What is myelin sheath? Where do we find it?
Answer: Axons of nerve cell is covered by a sheath called myelin sheath. Myelin sheath prevents the leakage of nerve impulse ( a sort of electrical signal) from the axon.
Q51: What happens in polio disease?
Answer: During early stages of childhood, when Polio virus attacks it kills motor neurons. Also nerve cells lose their ability to reproduce new nerve cells. This damage is permanent and the affected kid is unable to walk properly in his life
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